By C. Onatas. American Global University. 2018.
However prasugrel 10mg generic, protection from mosquito bites was not observed when Artemisia annua plants were placed around baits under field 2 situation (X =1 purchase prasugrel 10mg overnight delivery. The prospects for the use of indigenous plants and its extracts for personal propective measures in prevention and control of vector born diseases are also discussed discount prasugrel 10mg with amex. Establishment and use of Plasmodium berghei-mouse model in Burma for the screening of drugs for antimalarial activity. Plasmodium berghei infection produces a self resolving benign type of infection in albino rats. The level of parasitaemia was significantly increased in female rats than the male and also in the younger age group than the older one. The relationship of the infective inocula and the prepatent period was found to be linear with an approximate slope of r=0. The antimalarial effect was not elucidated with the extracts of Pan-daw-na, Taw-daw-na, Thu-young-kha, Khant-tauk-myint and Let-htoke-gyi. Kanamycin, Ampicillin, Isoniazid, Griseofulvin, Diethylcarbamazine and Furazolidone did not produce any antimalarial effect. The establishment of in vitro screening model for antimalarials using rabbit serum and Plasmodium falciparum. A rabbit in vitro model system is tested to determine the activity of antimalarial drugs against P. Serum samples obtained from rabbits at various time intervals after administration of drugs were incubated with parasites collected from patients. Antimalarial activity was detected in sera obtained from rabbits treated with amodiaquine, chloroquine, quinine and pyrimethamine. The rabbit in vitro system using quinine or chloroquine treated rabbit serum showed the definite relationship with the sensitivity pattern of in vitro testing using precharged plates with known amount of antimalarials and human serum. The model was also found to be useful for the screening of the extracts of Artemisia annua. The results indicated that this model may be a useful system for further screening of drugs against falciparum malaria, particularly compounds which need to be metabolised in vitro. Evaluation of antibacterial activity and characterization of phytoconstituents of selected Myanmar medicinal plants. Studies on the morphology of the vegetative and reproductive parts and the anatomy of the leaf blade, leaf sheath, bulb and roots have been made. Comparative physico-chemical and phyto-chemical studies on garlic collected from three different localities namely, Taunggyi, Mogoke and Monywa Townships were conducted. The main constituent of garlic, allicin, from the bulb was extracted and identified by the thin layer chromatographic and spectroscopic determinations. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal activities of some isolated bioactive organic compounds present in Melastoma malabathricum Linn. The investigation was conducted by castor oil-induced diarrhoeal test, castor oil-induced entropooling test and castor oil-induced small intestinal transit test. From these results, it can be inferred that aqueous extracts from both plant samples and ethyl gallate had frequencies of diarrhoeal reducing effect, anti-secretary effect and anti-motility effect. From this experiment, it was observed that both aqueous extracts and ethyl gallate had direct relaxation effect on smooth muscle. The relaxation effects were increased with increasing the concentrations of all samples tested. It was also observed that both aqueous extracts and ethyl gallate showed marked decrease in magnitude and frequency of ileal contraction and decrease in intestinal movement. It indicated that both extracts and ethyl gallate have anti-muscarinic activity as atropine and tolazoline and they also have anti-histamine activity very similar to that of chlorpheniramine. May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Ohnmar Ko; Myint Myint Khine; San San Myint; Nu Nu Win; Mar Mar Nyein. In order to combat the problems of diarrhoea globally, World Health Organization has given a special emphasis on the use of traditional medicines in management of diarrhoea. It thus becomes important to evaluate commonly available natural drugs as alternative to currently used anti-diarrhoeal drugs. The aim is to evaluate in vivo and in vitro antidiarrhoeal activity of reputed Mango seed kernel. In vivo the anti- diarrhoeal activity of aqueous extracts were carried out using castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in mice with the standard loperamide. Like loperamide, a single oral dose of its extract produced significant reduction in fecal out put and onset of diarrhoea (p<0. May Aye Than; Mu Mu Sein Myint; Myint Myint Khine; Phyu Phyu Win; San San Myint; Nu Nu Win; Ohnmar Tun, Naw.
Philadelphia order prasugrel 10mg mastercard, Proc Am Assoc Zoo Vet quality 10mg prasugrel, 1974 prasugrel 10 mg overnight delivery, pp 221- coemulsification in two raptors. Comp (eds): First Aid and Care of Wild tions in cockatiels and other psittac- Structure and Function. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, mangement of domestic waterfowl Proc Am Assoc Zoo Vet, 1988, pp 43- Proc Am Assoc Zoo Vet, 1989, p 208. Can Vet J tivated eastern equine encephalitis vi- roots of the brachial plexus in five parakeet. Avian Dis 35:631- crosis, and cerebellar malacia in tur- nostic indicator of splanchnic 81. Assoc Avian Vet To- chlorine toxicosis in wild birds on meningitis in a group of Pionus spp 102. Parrot T: Hepatopathy and neurologi- Proc 1st Int Conf Zoo & Avian Med, tacus erithacus timneh). Mannl A, et al: Neuropathic gastric cal abnormalities in an umbrella 1987, pp 267-271. Toxoplasma cysts and oocysts in fe- common loons (Gavia immer) in New lesions from animals in a zoological 149. Murase T, et al: Treatment of lead poi- disease in parrots, budgerigars, and detection of avian encephalomyelitis and pathologic features of macaw soning in wild geese. Avian Dis 32:209-214, wasting disease (proventricular dila- Assoc 200(11):1726-1729, 1992. Assoc Avian Vet To- orders in caged birds: A retrospective outbreak of avian encephalomyelitis 152. Proc Assoc Avian by enzyme-linked immunosorbent as- moic acid poisoning in brown pelicans 98. Theriogenology in birds in- T cludes these topics as well as egg anatomy, physiology and incubation. With the rising interest in captive propagation for avicultural and conserva- tion purposes, modern avian theriogenology also in- cludes veterinary and avicultural techniques de- signed to maintain optimal production. Many 29 factors, including complex reproductive behaviors, affect avian reproduction. Avian clinicians can serve the avicultural community by developing a thorough understanding of the avicultural techniques, anat- omy, physiology, nutrition and behavior necessary to maintain long-term reproductive health for individ- ual pairs and the flock. Joyner selected for productivity traits are probably more susceptible to reproductive disorders than compan- ion bird species. The most common infectious agent affecting the reproductive tract of laying hens appears to be E. Additionally, more than one type of reproductive dis- order is often present; however, because of the com- mon pathogenesis of many of these disorders, pre- ventive and therapeutic considerations are generally similar irrespective of the etiology. This vesicle Female Reproductive formation continues until the entire follicle is cov- ered. As the largest follicle is absorbed, the smaller Anatomy and Egg Formation follicles will progress similarly. The right ovary and exhibit permanent ovarian involution, which is be- oviduct are present in embryonic stages, but these lieved to be a normal physiologic process. Aflatoxi- tissues normally regress before hatching in most cosis can also cause follicular atresia. In some species and individuals (raptors), these organs may be vestigial or functional post-hatching. The left ovary is located at the cranial Oviduct end of the kidney and is attached to the abdominal wall by the mesovarian ligament. In young birds the Understanding the anatomic divisions of the oviduct ovary is flattened, in an inverted “L”-shape. It has and their associated functions is important when nearly inappreciable folds and resembles a piece of discerning pathologic changes in the reproductive fat (see Color 13). During active egg laying, the oviduct enlarges become more prominent, small primary oocytes give and occupies much of the left abdomen. An ovary and oviduct tion in maturing hens causes a hierarchy of follicles can regress to a point where it is difficult to deter- to develop, giving the ovary the appearance of a mine if a hen has ever been reproductively active. As the The oviduct consists of five microscopically distin- breeding season approaches, the follicles undergo a guishable regions: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, period of rapid growth with the deposition of yolk uterus (shell gland) and vagina (Figure 29. At this point and ventral ligaments attach the oviduct in the peri- the yellow yolk is clearly visible through the highly 79 toneal cavity. The large follicle is sus- ment is clearly visible crossing the cranial division of pended by a stalk. The cranial oviduct and stronger smooth muscle contrac- hypertrophied granulosa cells are metabolically ac- tions in the uterus and vagina move the ovum down tive for several days and may not be reabsorbed until and the sperm up the reproductive tract. Oviduct eight to ten days post-ovulation in the chicken, and 100 transit time varies among species and is approxi- up to several months in the Mallard Duck. Similar transit times post-ovulatory follicle is thought to secrete non- are discussed in companion and aviary birds, with steroidal hormones that are involved in oviposition 86 the egg spending varying but proportional times in and nesting behavior.
Damit die "Spanische Grippe" nicht zuruckkehrt [How "Spanish fu" is not recognized] buy 10 mg prasugrel with amex. Journal article in a language other than English with optional original language title included 20 buy discount prasugrel 10 mg on-line. Errata (error notices) range from simple indications of a misspelling to serious errors in drug dosages or mathematical calculations prasugrel 10mg overnight delivery. Error notices that are inserted unbound into a journal issue or tipped in are not considered part of the permanent bibliographic record. Enter the phrase "Erratum in: " followed by the journal title abbreviation, date of publication, volume, issue, and location (pagination). Enter the phrase "Erratum for: " followed by the journal title abbreviation, date of publication, volume, issue, and location (pagination). Enter the phrase "Retraction in: " followed by the names of the authors, the journal title abbreviation, date of publication, volume, issue, and location (pagination). Enter the phrase "Retraction of: " followed by the names of the authors, the journal title abbreviation, date of publication, volume, issue, and location (pagination). Provide months in English and abbreviate them to the frst three letters, such as Jan for January. Post- streptococcal autoimmune neuropsychiatric disease presenting as paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring. Other types of notes for journal articles Examples of Citations to Journal Articles 1. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Journal article with optional limit to the number of authors to 3 authors Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, et al. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography accurately detects common bile duct stones in resolving gallstone pancreatitis. Journal article with organization as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included American College of Dentists, Board of Regents. Draf additional protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, on biomedical research. Journal article with multiple organizations as author American Dietetic Association; Dietitians of Canada. Journal article with multiple organizations as author, with subsidiary part of the organization included American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine; American College of Emergency Physicians, Pediatric Committee. Policy on the inclusion of women and racial and ethnic minorities in externally awarded research; notice. Te efect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Comparative sequencing provides insights about the structure and conservation of marsupial and monotreme genomes. Te efect of metformin and intensive lifestyle intervention on the metabolic syndrome: the Diabetes Prevention Program randomized trial. Te short form-12 and the measurement of health status in patients with cerebral aneurysms: performance, validity, and reliability. Journal article authors with compound last names (give as found in the article) Bruno-Ambrosius K, Yucel-Lindberg T, Twetman S. Salivary bufer capacity in relation to menarche and progesterone levels in saliva from adolescent girls: a longitudinal study. Journals 63 de Pouvourville G, Ulmann P, Nixon J, Boulenger S, Glanville J, Drummond M. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey among health care workers and tuberculosis patients in Iraq. Applicability of an in vitro digestion model in assessing the bioaccessibility of mycotoxins from food. Journal article with no author provided Pelvic foor exercise can reduce stress incontinence. A new selection system to recruit general practice registrars: preliminary fndings from a validation study. Mahmutyazicioglu K (Department of Radiology, Zonguldak Karaelmas University School of Medicine, Kozlu Zonguldak, Turkey), Ogawa T (Department of Radiology, Tottori 64 Citing Medicine University School of Medicine,Yonago, Japan).
If negative feedback is working properly prasugrel 10mg low price, a missile or a torpedo reacts to "criticism" just enough to correct course and keeps going forward toward the target prasugrel 10 mg on line. However order prasugrel 10 mg otc, if the mechanism is too sensitive to negative feedback, the servo-mechanism overcorrects. Instead of progressing toward the target, it will perform exaggerated lateral zig-zags, or stop all forward progress altogether. We must have negative feedback in order to operate purposely, in order to steer our way, or be guided to a goal. When we over-react to negative feedback of criticism, we are likely to conclude that not only is our present course slightly off-beam, or wrong, but that it is wrong for us even to want to go forward. When he is ready to return to his car, he looks for his tree (or target) and starts walking towards it. From time to time the tree may be lost from his view, but as soon as he is able he "checks course" by comparing his direction with the location of the tree. If he finds that his present course is taking him 15 degrees to the left of the tree, he must recognize that what he is doing is "wrong. When it comes to our attention that our manner of expression is off course, missing the mark, or "wrong"— we conclude that self-expression itself is wrong, or that success for us (reaching our particular tree) is wrong. Keep in mind that excessive negative feedback has the effect of interfering with, or stopping completely, the appropriate response. Stuttering as a Symptom of Inhibition Stuttering offers a good illustration of how excessive negative feedback brings on inhibition, and interferes with appropriate response. While most of us are not consciously aware of the fact, when we talk we receive negative feedback data through our ears by listening to or "monitoring" our own voice. They have no way of knowing whether their voice is coming out as a shriek, a scream, or an unintel- ligible mumble. This is also the reason that persons born deaf, do not learn to talk at all, except with special tutor- ing. Voice teachers advise that we record our own voices on a tape recorder, and listen back to them, as a method of improving tone, enunciation, etc. We are able to see clearly what it is we are doing "wrong"—and we can make correction. If we are consciously overcritical of our speech, or if we are too careful in trying to avoid errors in advance, rather than reacting spontaneously, stuttering is likely to result. When asked to read aloud from a prepared text under these conditions, which eliminated self-criticism, the improvement was "remarkable. When excessive negative feedback, or self-criticism, was eliminated, inhibition disappeared and performance improved. When there was no time for worry, or too much "carefulness" in advance, expression immediately improved. This gives us a valuable clue as to how we may disinhibit or release a locked up personality, and im- prove performance in other areas. Excessive "Carefulness" Leads to Inhibition and Anxiety Have you ever tried to thread a needle? If so, and if you are inexperienced at it, you may have noticed that you could hold the thread steady as a rock until you approached the eye of the needle and attempted to insert it into the very small opening. Each time you tried to place the thread through the small opening, your hand unaccountably shook and the thread missed the mark. Attempting to pour a liquid into the mouth of a very small-necked bottle often results in the same kind of be- havior. You can hold your hand perfectly steady, until you try to accomplish your purpose, then for some strange reason you quiver and shake. In certain pathological con- ditions, such as injury to certain areas of the brain, this "purpose tremor" can become very pronounced. But let him try to insert his door-key into the lock on his front door, and his hand may "zigzag" back and forth as much as six to ten inches. If he is ashamed of this, and becomes even more "careful" not to make an error in the presence of strangers, he may not be able to sign his name at all. These people can be helped, and often remarkably, by training in relaxation techniques where they learn to relax from excessive effort and "purposing" and not to be overly-careful in trying to avoid errors or "failures. As in the case of the stutterer, who attempts to anticipate pos- sible errors and be overly-careful not to make them—the result is inhibition and deterioration of performance. Both have to do with too much concern for possible failure, or do- ing the "wrong thing," and making too much of a con- scious effort to do right. How can conversation possibly steer itself through such a sea of responsibilities and inhibitions such as this?
It their lips and allow a companion bird to nibble at the is important to identify and avoid any pin feathers food discount prasugrel 10 mg. High levels (blood feathers discount prasugrel 10 mg mastercard, blood quills) discount 10mg prasugrel with mastercard, as a developing feather of salt and ingestion of some foods (chocolate, avo- that is cut below the pulp cap will bleed profusely. The goal of clipping the wings is to prevent the bird Grit from developing rapid and sustained flight and not to make a bird incapable of flight (Figures 1. A Whether or not to provide soluble shell grit and bird that is unable to gain any lift with the wings insoluble coarse sand grit to a bird is controversial. Excessive wing trims can result in fractures States, especially if given free choice, which may lead of the legs, wings or lacerations of the keel (see Color to over-consumption and obstructive gastritis. Australia, grit is frequently offered to companion birds with few ill effects; however, birds fed formu- A bird will require additional trimming eight to lated diets are unlikely to need either insoluble or twelve weeks after the start of a molt cycle. As a compromise, a cockatiel-sized bird clipping has been loosely associated with feather can be offered five grains of grit biannually; a cocka- picking and self-mutilation in species that are prone too-sized bird can be offered a half-teaspoon of grit to this behavior (Gang Gang Cockatoos, Major biannually. Cuttlefish bone may be provided as a Mitchell’s Cockatoos, Moluccan Cockatoos, Rose- supplemental source of calcium; however, with the breasted Cockatoos or rosellas); however, the role widespread availability of formulated diets, these that feather clipping plays is unsubstantiated. In agents are no longer required to provide supplemen- smaller athletic birds, both wings may require clip- tal calcium. A short length (usu- Seed bells that have been fashioned with wood glue ally about 2 mm) of the nail can be removed by should not be offered to birds. Each individual feather is depressed with the scissors and cut below the covert, being sure to miss any pinfeather shafts to avoid bleeding. An aesthetically pleasing wing trim can be performed by pushing a feather to be cut ventrally and then clipping the quill at a level under the wing covert feathers. The dust created by grinding the nails and beak is a health hazard and should be exhausted. Bathing Many birds enjoy a bath or shower and should be given the opportunity to determine the degree and duration of exposure to moisture. Frequent misting encourages normal grooming activity, which is criti- ing (Figure 1. After bathing, cated for birds and are not an alternative to nail birds should have access to a warm, draft-free area trimming. Some birds like a shallow container used to trim the tip of the nail with minimal risk of in which to bathe, while others prefer a fine spray accidentally cutting adjacent toes. Alternatively, a motor driven hobby grinder (prefer- Some like to fly onto and off the client’s shoulder or ably with a rheostat foot switch) with a cone-shaped head while the client is having a shower. When using a grinder, it is easy Very few birds like to be physically placed in bath to slowly reduce the length of the nail or beak and to water and washed. The few indications for manually stop at a point just before bleeding might occur. Any bathing a bird include the removal of oils, greases, bleeding that does occur is best controlled with a waxes, paints, dirt and dried medications. Unless a bipolar radiosurgical unit (beak), silver nitrate stick material contaminating the plumage is toxic, it can (nails) or Monsel’s solution (both). It is best not to use be removed a little at a time with repeated baths of a silver nitrate stick around the beak. In smaller athletic birds, both wings may require clipping to reduce flight capacity. It is generally recommended to been washed in soaps and detergents to regain the anesthetize a bird with isoflurane to ensure that a normal color and water resistance of their plumage. This prevents the bird from suddenly moving during the band removal process, Medications or food particles that have dried and which can result in lacerations or fractures of the leg become encrusted on the feathers around the mouth depending on the type of removal device used. In are removed by pre-moistening the material, then removing any band, it is important that forces be gently washing with a cloth a few minutes later. Identification Methods Small closed bands made of plastic or aluminum can Leg Band Removal be easily transected with Heath-type stitch removing Open leg bands should always be removed from com- scissors (Figure 1. Some closed leg bands aid in the iden- tification of a bird and may suggest that the bird was captive-bred; however, they can constitute a health hazard. Potential band-induced problems include en- trapment of the leg in the enclosure accessories or the accumulation of a constrictive ring of keratin (usu- ally associated with malnutrition or Knemidokoptes mites) between the band and the leg that can lead to impaired circulation and necrosis (Figure 1. Flat bands that are often too wide to comfortably ride on the tarsal bone can lead to traumatic exosteal bone formation. Any details on the leg band should be recorded in the bird’s record prior to removal. A highly prized breeding bird could be rendered almost valueless if its leg band is re- moved and no other form of identification (such as a microchip) is available.
However buy 10mg prasugrel fast delivery, as the la b o r a to r ie s come to r e a liz e th a t th ese p ercep tio n s are a v a ila b le a t no c o st to the a n a ly st in time or e f f o r t buy cheap prasugrel 10 mg line, and that they allow not only the a n a ly st but a lso h is su p ervisor to d etect anom alies in the assay a t a gla n ce discount prasugrel 10mg without a prescription, they should be accorded grea ter a tte n tio n. Although su p rlsin g ly l i t t l e evidence of such support has yet emerged, there i s hope th a t i t w ill do so. N ev erth eless, a d d itio n a l tim e w ill be required to meet the f u l l g o a ls of th is p r o je c t. The introduction of immunoassay to laboratories where environmental changes and limited equipment are likely to limit reliability and precision have emphasized the need for routine evaluation of assay performance. The aim has been to provide both an accurate calibration of the immunoassay response and an assessment of assay error which will allow the assayist to monitor and improve assay performance. As models of immunoassay error are used at all stages of processing they are described in some detail. Analysis of sources of error associated with counting, small perturbation “experimental” errors and assay “drift” is explicitly embraced by the program and is used to screen out untypical assay errors or “outliers”. This is a statistically more reliable estimate of precision than the observed replication for an individual result and when calculated for doses over the working range of the assay yields the precision profile as an important indicator of assay performance. These error sources all give rise to intra-batch changes and further analysis of the quality control samples is required to detect inter-batch variations. A considerable family of functions have been applied to model the immunoassay response and the reasons for selection of the logit and mass- action forms are discussed. A four-parameter single-binding-site model was chosen for the initial, program release. The problem of the assayist losing contact with the nature of the data being processed when insufficient (or excessive) statistical output is provided has been considered and graphical presentations have accordingly been introduced wherever possible. Pictorial representation is seen as a way of conveying large amounts of statistical information in an intelligible form while allowing the assayist to retain a “feel” for the underlying data. Apart from the immediate intra laboratory benefits of data processing it is expected that the processing of large amounts of immunoassay data in a standard format will provide a unique data base. This may be used to examine changes in processing techniques and to compare assay performance between laboratories in otherwise impractical detail. Most of these programs have provided a satisfactory calibration but included little analysis of assay error. The appearance of the cheap microcomputer has multiplied the number of potential users and created a need not merely for specific programs but a clear understanding of the concepts on which these programs should be based. The introduction of immunoassay into laboratories where environmental changes and limited equipment are likely to limit reliability and precision have further emphasized the need for programs which allow routine evaluation of assay performance. The constraints of the microcomputer and the need to accommodate a wider range of users necessitated considerable changes to the original program. The opportunity was therefore taken to revise the actual processing, simplify presentation, exploit the graphics facilities of this micro computer and to provide more complete documentation. The aim is to provide both an accurate, robust calibration of immunoassay response and an assessment of assay error which will enable the assayist to monitor and improve assay performance. As models of immunoassay error are used throughout processing they will be described in some detail. The second part of the paper describes the actual program, and goes on to discuss briefly some problems of software development on microcomputers. In a more realistic case e might be characterized by a Gaussian distribution which is defined by two parameters: (i) The expected value of e: E(e) - or the instrument bias. Immunoassay, however, is a rather unreliable multi-stage procedure with the possibility of different errors being introduced at each step. It then becomes useful for the assayist to be able to distinguish, and perhaps monitor, those sources of error thought to make a significant contribution to the overall assay performance. More complex effects may be modelled by the use of non-Gaussian distribu tions, by introducing models for other sources of error, or by allowing the existing model parameters to be dependent upon factors such as time or assay response. We may now describe any source of error and include it in an analysis of assay error if the model parameters (or statistics) are known or can be determined. When the parameter values are uncertain the assayist must undertake an experi ment to estimate them. An example of increased complexity arises from the desire to describe the observed dependence of assay precision upon the measured dose. The error observed among replicates can be considered the sum of counting and laboratory errors. This counting error can be further broken down into a “background” component and an error arising from the inherently random nature of radioactive decay. If these components are considered to be important they can be described as in Fig. If these factors are to be included and distinguished entirely from other noise then the assay protocol must allow their detection, perhaps by repeated counting of the same tubes. In practice the assayist is likely to rely upon occasional checks for counter stability.
There are receptors for testosterone on the cells of both hair follicles and the prostate discount 10mg prasugrel otc. These ﬁndings mean not that balding men will deﬁnitely get prostate cancer buy prasugrel 10 mg with mastercard, but only that they are at increased risk generic 10mg prasugrel amex, meaning that they would be wise to be more aggressive with dietary and supplementation programs to reduce their risk of developing prostate cancer. In fact, it would be worthwhile to read the chapter “Breast Cancer (Prevention)” to gain an even greater appreciation of how diet can affect hormone-sensitive tissues like the breast and prostate. One of the interesting dietary associations in breast cancer is the high risk that comes with eating well-done or charbroiled meat; frequent consumption of well-done meat, for example, was associated with a nearly 500% increase in breast cancer. Higher consumption of hamburgers, processed meats, grilled meats, and well-done meat was associated with an approximately 50 to 80% increase in aggressive forms of prostate cancer. In a study conducted in Canada, researchers found a twofold increased risk of prostate cancer associated with an increased intake of milk. Interestingly, it was the only dairy product associated with an increased risk for prostate cancer. It is also important to point out that the Mediterranean diet has been shown to help prevent prostate cancer. That would be expected given that it is high in vegetables, legumes, dried and fresh fruits, and ﬁsh; olive oil is its main fat source; it is low in animal fats, processed red meat, milk and dairy products; and it includes regular but low alcohol intake (wine with meals). The high intake of soy may be one of the key protective factors accounting for the low rate of prostate cancer in Japan and China compared with other parts of the world: blood and urine concentrations of soy isoﬂavones (an indicator of intake) were found to be 7 to 10 times higher in Japanese men consuming a traditional Japanese diet compared with Finnish men consuming a typical Western diet. Information on the isoﬂavone content of common soy foods can be found on page 788. Just as in breast cancer again, the beneﬁts of these long-chain omega-3 fatty acids are magniﬁed when the level of animal fat (saturated fat, and arachidonic acid in particular) is also reduced. A high ratio of dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids is major risk factor for prostate cancer. Unfortunately, no one has actually looked at the effect of ﬂaxseed oil in prostate cancer. At this time it appears that men in general may be better off avoiding ﬂaxseed oil supplements and focusing on ground ﬂaxseed (for the lignans) and ﬁsh (for the omega-3 fatty acids). Flaxseed Ground ﬂaxseed appears to be quite helpful not only in preventing prostate cancer but also in men with existing prostate cancer. In addition to its phytoestrogenic effect, ﬂaxseed lignans also bind to male hormone receptors and promote the elimination of testosterone. In a study of men with prostate cancer, a low-fat diet (with fat providing 20% or less of total calories) supplemented with 30 g ground ﬂaxseed (roughly 2 tbsp) reduced serum testosterone by 15%, slowed the growth rate of cancer cells, and increased the death rate of cancer cells after only 34 days. Although genetics could play a role, a more likely explanation is dietary differences. In a study conducted by the National Cancer Institute of men who had been newly diagnosed with biopsy-proved prostate cancer and matched controls without prostate cancer, it was shown that increased consumption of foods high in animal fat was linked to prostate cancer (independent of intake of other calories) among black men compared with whites. The higher the intake of animal fat, the greater the risk for advanced prostate cancer. These results indicate that diet plays a major role in why black men have a higher rate of prostate cancer and show that a reduction of fat from animal sources in the diet could lead to decreased incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer, particularly among African- Americans. In one, a total of 29,133 male smokers ages 50 to 69 from southwestern Finland were randomly assigned to receive vitamin E (50 mg), beta-carotene (20 mg), both nutrients, or a placebo for 5 to 8 years (median 6. A 32% decrease in the incidence of prostate cancer was observed among the 14,564 subjects receiving vitamin E compared with the 14,569 not receiving it. However, in the 14,560 subjects receiving beta-carotene, prostate cancer incidence was actually 23% higher and mortality was 15% higher compared with the 14,573 not receiving it. Another form of vitamin E, known as gamma-tocopherol, may prove to be more important against prostate cancer than the alpha-tocopherol form, which has been used in virtually all the vitamin E research. Eight different compounds—four tocopherols and four tocotrienols—make up the vitamin E family. They have some functions that are similar and other functions that are completely different. Alpha-tocopherol became synonymous with vitamin E for two main reasons: (1) of the eight, it is the most abundant in the human body, and (2) it is by far the most effective of the eight for what was originally thought of as vitamin E’s main function—to support reproduction. Our blood and tissue contain much more alpha-tocopherol than gamma-tocopherol despite the fact that in the typical American diet we consume twice as much gamma-tocopherol as alpha. The reason is that the liver is able to identify the alpha-tocopherol as it is absorbed from the gut and bind it to a special protein, called the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein. It recognizes the alpha- tocopherol and preferentially puts more of it in lipoproteins—proteins that carry fat and cholesterol (e. This compound and other metabolites may act to better protect the prostate from oxidative damage as well as promote apoptosis (programmed cell death), which helps prevent cells from becoming cancerous. In one study, 117 men who developed prostate cancer and 233 matched control subjects had toenail and plasma samples assayed for selenium, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol. For gamma-tocopherol, men with the highest levels had a ﬁvefold reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer compared with men with the lowest levels.